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The Sundered West - Alternative History RP in the Western Hemisphere [Closed]

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#1
Welcome to The Sundered West nation-building RP

The United States had been dissolved following a failed constitutional convention in 1787, leaving the states to build their own path as independent republics. 60 years later, the west has been sundered by wars and empires, led by despots and fortune seekers carving out land from one another for themselves.

A more extensive lore of the current world, how it got to this point and explanatory maps can be found here: Nation Building - The Sundered West Lore

Turns will be 1 year long, starting in January 1st, 1850. Turns should be no longer than 10 command lines, split between:

Diplomacy: Interactions with all foreign countries, whether NPC or player
Domestic: Everything involving your internal affairs, from the economy to social laws
Military: Anything involving the military whether in times of peace or war
Espionage: Skulduggery, spying and stealing of state secrets. Anything you don’t want other players to know goes here - but watch out for enemy spies as well.


Current Player List:
Native Hunter, Republic of New York
Joshuadim, Commonwealth of Virginia
Yung Lad, Republic of Alta
Ruski, the Georgian Republic
Pez, Kingdom of Louisiana
Martianant, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Sobotnik, Cherokia
Amfleet, Los Cosiatos
Heyitsjiwon, Republic of Quebec​


Starting Map of the Western Hemisphere, January 1st 1850

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#2
Ridge's speech to the representatives of the tribes: 1849

It is sometimes asked whether it is not possible to slow down the tempo somewhat, to put a check on those reforms we have made to our nation. No, brothers it is not possible! On the contrary, we must increase it as much as is within our powers and possibilities. This is dictated to us by our obligations to protect our people. Our land. Our nation.

To slacken the tempo would mean falling behind. And those who fall behind get beaten. But we do not want to be beaten. No, we refuse to be beaten! One feature of the history of the Indian peoples was the continual beatings suffered because of their backwardness. They were beaten by the British. They was beaten by the Spanish. They was beaten by the French. They were beaten by the nations of Europe and by their children. All beat her because of Indian backwardness, military backwardness, cultural backwardness, political backwardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backwardness. They beat them because to do so was profitable and could be done with impunity. Do you remember the words of the poet Tayanita? "You are poor and abundant, mighty and impotent, Mother Cherokia." Those who beat Indians were no stranger to that. They beat them, saying: "Your land is abundant; so one can enrich oneself at your expense. They beat them, saying: "You are poor and impotent" so you can be beaten and plundered with impunity. Such is their law, to beat the weak and impotent. It is the jungle law which justifies slavery. You are backward, you are weak-therefore you are wrong; hence, you can be beaten and enslaved just like those negroes we took from Africa. You are mighty-therefore you are right; hence, we must be wary of you. That is why we must no longer lag behind.

In the past we did not have our nation, nor could we have one. But now that we have seized guns, power is in our hands, in the hands of the people, we have Mother Cherokia, and we will defend her independence. Do you want Mother Cherokia to be beaten and to lose its independence? If you do not want this you must put an end to its backwardness in the shortest possible time and develop a genuine Cherokee tempo in building up system of economy. One different to what came before. There is no other way. That is why Dragging Canoe said when he established Cutonuga: "Either we perish, or overtake and outstrip."

We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or we shall be crushed.
 
#3
Chapter I: "This Land Is My Land..."

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World Events Year of Our Lord Eighteen Hundred Fifty:

-The St. Patrick Riots: Poor Irish Catholic immigrants in the English colony of Newfoundland riot for three days over working conditions and treatment by the minority English protestant colonial government.
-Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter is published.
-Newspapers in many Anglo-American nations, from Savannah to New York City, circulate an article condemning the perversion and lawlessness of the Ozark Federation.
-Pope Pius IX returns to Rome from exile.
-English convicts begin being transported to Western Australia.
-Hundreds of Irish Catholic immigrants arrive throughout the Commonwealth of New England, threatening Protestant denominations as the majority faith of the nation.
-As a concession to liberals in the empire, the Eusébio de Queirós Law is passed by the Brazilian crown, outlawing international slave trading in the empire.
-A rebellion against the Qing emperor in China erupts.
-Tensions between the Republic of Texas and the Republic of the Rio Grande grow over border disputes as both accuse the other of antagonizing the Commanche to raid one another.
-In November, the Austrian Empire takes leadership of the German Confederation from Prussia.
-The United Kingdom begins bringing East Indians to its Caribbean colonies as laborers.
-Former French monarch Louis Philippe I dies in exile in the United Kingdom.

Current Player Involved Conflicts:
Venezuelan Secession War: Los Cosiatos vs. Gran Colombia
Fifth Seminole War: The Georgian Republic vs. State of Seminole Chiefdoms

Other Conflicts in the Western Hemisphere:
N/A

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Alta Flag.png
Republic of Alta - Milke
President: Michael Quixano
Capital: Sacramento
Largest City: Sacramento

-”Construction” is the spirit sweeping the Republic of Alta throughout 1850. Not of buildings, but of a country and President Quixano announces a formal constitution, based on the constitution of the Second French Republic, has been agreed upon by all the politicians in the land as a foundation for the nation. Along with creating the organs of a national government, an additional “12 Principles of Rights” is signed off, guaranteeing freedoms of speech and fair trial, as well as the outlawing of slavery and the right to vote for men of any ethnicity or color, marking Alta as one of the most free nations in the Americas.
-With a republic formed, the government quickly moves to make as many international friends as it can to thwart the Empire of Mexico potentially reconquering their lost province without notice from the world. A delegation is sent to the Republic of Texas which is welcomed with open arms due to a mutual foe.
-While talks of potentially exchanging construction of embassies go on through the spring, President Houston grants the Republic of Alta a supply of weapons. While many of the muskets are good, Georgian quality, delegates from Alta manage to secure shipments of a few modernized breech-loading rifles as well. As the hot summer approaches, a large wagon train of rifles, cannon, and gunpowder make their way into Sacramento.
-A delegation is also sent to Laredo, Republic of the Rio Grande to find friendship with the republican Mexicans there. While the people of the city welcome the Altans warmly and the government sympathizes with Alta’s independence, fears of reprisals from the Empire of Mexico handicap the Rio Grande from giving any practical assistance for now.
-As fall approaches, envoys are sent out to Moscow, London, and Paris to procure an international recognition and aid. To the disappointment of many, each government rejects an official recognition of what they currently consider a province of imperial Mexico. Despite this, the delegation to Paris manages to find some private financiers to help the Republic of Alta.
-Understanding that the new republic was still in a fragile state at the end of the year, President Quixano orders the current militias to take defensive positions throughout the southern border with the aim of bogging down and creating hell for any invading army approaching from the south while the Republic of Alta continues to build a formal and official army.


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Cherokia - Sobotnik
First Beloved Man: Ridge
Capital: Cutonuga
Largest City: Cutonuga

-The assembly of the Cherokee meet under the leadership of Chief Ridge at the beginning of the year in Cutonuga to discuss moving into the industrialization of the country as the Anglo-American and Franco-American states around it have. Though there is small dissent from the Traditionalists in the government, all recognize the survival of Cherokia thus far have been through successfully assimilation European technology and ideologies into the Amerindian nation. After a debate, the town of Unegvadisi where the Ohio and Mississippi rivers merge, is granted funds to build a steel mill as well as a locomotive construction yard. Funding and aid for the projects are fueled by relaxing tariffs on the Mississippi River shared with the Kingdom of Louisiana as well as raw materials from the Pennsylvanian city of Pittsburgh.
-To help facilitate communications from different parts of the country, the National Cherokee Telegraph Office is formed. By the end of the year, lines are run from the Ohio River all the way south to the Gulf of Mexico.
-An envoy is sent to London in the late spring to open up trade with the United Kingdom with the intention of expanding the industrial birth of Cherokia. Within a week, agreements are signed with the English selling a handful of steamships to the Cherokee in exchange for them curbing the institute of slavery, an institute already smaller than neighboring nations on the continent.
-To make space for the arrival of the steamships later in the year, Cherokia’s sole port of Maubila is ordered to expand as well as construct drydocks to service the ships. The first orders of Unegvadisi steel is made by the ports of Maubila, increasing the use of Cherokia’s only railway through the country dramatically.
-While the Modernists in government managed to make great leaps in pushing industry in Cherokia, agreements are made with the Traditionalists on teaching the history of the Cherokee people. Education is made mandatory for children 5 to 12, with instruction on the epic poem “Cherokia” emphasized every year of schooling. The poem, a long saga of the creation and history of the Cherokee nation from the beginning of time to present day, is meant to teach children where their ancestors are from and to insure they know the difference between Cherokee and Anglo-American.
-In mid summer, a census is held throughout the country and mandated to repeat every 5 years. With hard work and dedication, those tasked with the accounting produce a report for the government revealing a general population of 350,000 throughout the land.
-After reading the census report, the government of the Cherokee pass a law granting men who own or rent property of a value of $10 or greater the right to vote in the coming years, with both Modernists and Traditionalists hoping to garner more support for their ideals.
-Though industrialization is the main focus of Cutonuga throughout the year, a number of ordinances and funds are moved around for expanding the defense of the country. Gun battery fortifications are constructed at Unegvadisi, Cutonuga, and Maubila to defend the most vital points in the nation.
-Great praise is made for Ridge after revealing a Non-Aggression Pact is signed with the Georgian Republic, securing most of Cherokia’s eastern border. The deal includes exporting Cherokee goods and materials to Georgia, creating what is hoped to be a large influx of capital into the land.
-By the end of the year, Cherokia breaks from the repeating history of taking technologies from other nations and takes the initiative by becoming the first American nation to phase out muskets in favor of breech-loading rifles, hoping to give their armies an edge in any conflict.


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The Georgian Republic - Ruski
President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Capital: Savannah
Largest City: Atlanta

-President Stephens starts the new year off with announcing a historic procurement of a non-aggression pact with Cherokia, ending the decades long worry of conflict for those living along the border. Along with the peace comes a trade deal allowing Georgian industrialists to purchase raw materials from Cherokia.
-The following March, newspapers announce a reduction of tariffs between Georgia and the Carolina Confederacy. Though not much is imported from the north, Georgian rifle manufactures find new markets for avid Carolina huntsmen as well as slave bounty hunters.
-Despite peace being made on most of the Georgian frontier, the government quietly ramps up recruitment for the army throughout the late winter and spring, while fresh orders by the quartermaster corps is made to cannon manufactures. What few journalists take notice of the armament of the nation write it off as a “public injection of funds into a growing industry”.
-In early May, the purpose of the rising military expenditures is unmasked with a declaration of war on the State of Seminole Chiefdoms in the south. With the goal of eliminating once and for all Amerindian raids on Georgia’s southern border, the army is ordered to invade across the entire peninsula. The initial invasion catches majority of the Seminoles off guard, but after decades of conflict with the Georgians, manage to quickly organize a resistance.
-The Georgian Army manages to march easily into the first few hundred villages along the border, capturing many Seminole warriors in the process. By the end of May, the army encounters its first major battle with a united Seminole army near the Tampa Bay. After years of experienced fighting, the Georgian army decisively defeat the Amerindians, with an estimate of some 600 Seminole warriors killed or wounded. This allows the Georgians to sweep the rest of the peninsula until the final Battle of Lake Okeechobee which, despite succumbing to the heaviest losses so far in the war, Georgia comes out as a clear victor. Throughout the end of the year, Georgian forces secure the land all the way to the Florida Keys, however pockets of Seminole warriors remain throughout the far south giving constant ambushes against the Georgians into the end of the year while many others are suspected to have fled to British Bahamas.
-With the south finally free of Seminole incursions, the government decides it is safe to invest more into the southern frontier. The ports of Jacksonville on the Atlantic coast are given large funds to expand and dredge while railroad tracks are laid from the port all the way to Atlanta, hoping to connect Georgian industry with international exports.
-Government sponsored pamphlets are circulated throughout Europe in the fall advertising Georgia’s successful securing of its borders and growing industry as a place of safe and well-paying jobs, though mention of Georgia’s current slave status remains noticeably absent. Though many in Europe have other targets for immigration in the Americas, one group of people - the Irish Catholics - find Georgia as good a nation as any to flee from the famine gripping their homeland.


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Los Cosiatos - Amfleet
Rebel Leader: General José Antonio Páez
Home City: Valencia

-Under the leadership of General Paez, the Cosiatos begin circulating newspapers condemning the Bogota government as weak, corrupt, and uncaring to the people in the east of Gran Colombia. While the articles stop short of being offensively critical of The Liberator, President Simon Bolivar, the notion that his age and frailty have begun to hinder his ability to govern quickly finds agreement throughout the city of Valencia and the surrounding countryside. Many top officials of Bolivar's government are blamed for the loss of Ecuador in the Colombian-Peru War, catching the attention of many of the peasants who had fought the conflict.
-Hoping to capitalize on Bolivar’s weak foreign diplomacy, General Paez sends out a number of envoys to the Anglo-American nations in North America seeking aid in return for promise of open trade in the future. Though few governments even grant the envoys an audience, President Anderson of the Commonwealth of New England grants a shipment of muskets and pistols from Boston to the rebels, sympathetic to their democratic cause.
-During the time the Cosiatos envoys are away, the general practices governorship at home, courting the favor of surrounding plantation owners. Some throw their support behind him without hesitation, mostly due to some slight suffered from a Bogota official at some time in the past, while others play it safe with promises of support should he managed to actually secede Venezuela from Gran Colombia, but the majority brush him off as a dreamer or a lunatic.
-By late spring, General Paez and his Cosiatos launch an uprising in their home city of Valencia. The revolt captures the city and places it in the general’s hands so quickly that most are caught off guard. The following week, a similar rebellion is sprung in the city of Caracas. While a few gunshots are heard, no one is killed and the pro-Bolivar officials are thrown out of the city following a chant of “Go back to Colombia”. Loyal supporters of the general afterward set up patrols to take on the duty of city police and act as a militia should the cause need them to be.
-As news spreads of the seizure of Valencia and Caracus, the people of Maturín rise in rebellion to the Gran Colombian police and officials, handing General Paez a sizable region in the east of the country.
-With a large piece of Gran Colombia under Cosiatos control and the arms to keep it, a delegation is sent to Bogota to petition an end to hostilities and a peaceful split of the country. Silence returns for several weeks before newspapers from the west reveal that the delegation was imprisoned for treason and the Colombian army was mobilizing to crush “an uprising of banditry in the east”.
-As a result of Bogota’s inability to peacefully resolve the split, General Paez declares the independence of the United Venezuelan States and orders a number of roadblocks on all major highways to the west. Throughout the fall, some encounter police patrols of Gran Colombia and are either turned back or peacefully disarmed, but a number of bloody skirmishes break out when army units approach. Some roadblocks are broken while others proudly hold their ground, revealing how weak President Bolivar has let the once proud Colombian army become.
-While the rebellion is clearly a going concern by the end of the year, a decisive battle has yet to be waged due to the government in Bogota spending time both shoring up political support for the war and filling the ranks of the infantry. Though much of the regions around Valencia and Caracas are in full support of General Paez and Los Cosiatos, some regions in the west, notably the city of Puerto la Cruz, stand staunchly with President Bolivar and threaten the rebellion’s eastern flank should Colombia manage to send reinforcements there.


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Kingdom of Louisiana - Pez
Monarch: Napoleon III
Capital: New Orleans
Largest City: New Orleans

-Knowing that the Mississippi River has flooded New Orleans with wealth since the city was founded, the Kingdom decides to reinvest that wealth over the decades back up the river. Large barges and riverboats are commissioned and sold hoping aid in exporting goods in both north and south. By the early summer, barges delivering textiles and goods from the Caribbean up the Mississippi are found as far as Pittsburgh and throughout the Ohio.
-Along with these goods come small doses of immigration, mostly into the Ozark Federation as it is the first stop for many going up or down river. Many of the Louisianan arrivals in St. Louis are businessmen but many bring their families along to grow roots with their finances. By the fall, a number of missionary Catholic priests and friars follow to tend to the immigrating flock.
-The expansion of commerce up the river instead of down it results in a cluster of more ships in New Orleans trying to import goods rather than export. City and royal officials put state funds into expanding the ports to resolve the congestion. Much like New York’s Ellis Island, the construction of "Port de Règlement" is designed for registering immigrants as well as receiving goods.
-As the kingdom reaches northward, it sends its other arm to reach southward, opening up diplomatic ties with other nations around the Caribbean. Trade ties are made with the United States of Central America and the Confederation of the Equator, while relations with the Empire of Haiti greatly improve with a lavish embassy constructed in Port-au-Prince.
-In the late summer, a delegation is sent to London to open up easier trade relations with the United Kingdom. Many in parliament wish to reject trade with the American kingdom due to its use of slaves, but most understand the economic position in which New Orleans sits upon and receive the Frenchmen well enough to pass some deals.
-Hoping to attract more commerce and immigration, posters are spread on the walls of some European cities as well as other Francophone nations in the Americas proclaiming the Kingdom of Louisiana as the “Napoleon’s Great Legacy” and its capital as, “The Venice of the West”.
-By the end of the year, goods from the tropics begin to ship to New Orleans en mass as well as a spike in immigration, though registration officials are surprised that the majority of those entering the kingdom are poor Irish immigrants more so than anywhere else they had advertised.
-To help keep track of the growing population, a Royal Census Department is formed, tasked with keeping track of the entry of immigrants as well as the overall population every decade. With pressure from the military, an annual census report is pushed onto the department though many within complain about the logistics and ability to be accurate on an annual basis. With hard work, the RCD manages to find a rough estimate of around 800,000 throughout the kingdom by the end of the year.


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Republic of New York - Native Hunter
President: Stephan Van Rensselaer IV
Capital: Albany
Largest City: New York City

-The large amount of Irish Catholic immigrants fleeing the famine in their homeland to the northeast lands of North America shapes most of the Republic of New York’s domestic policies throughout 1850. While other nations are hesitant to receive so many foreigners, President Rensselaer sees them as an energy in which his nation can harness. In January, Ellis Island off the coast of New York City is acquired by the national government to be used as a processing station for all European newcomers. A registration is designed to keep track of all immigrating to the country and to help identify themselves with government issued papers. By the end of March, the first ship from Dublin ports at the island.
-As the population has grown over the recent years, the National Assembly in Albany passes the Immigrant Land Grant Ordinance, making sweeping proactive changes to accommodate those entering the country. The priority of the ILGO creates funds for expansive construction of apartment buildings throughout New York City, which not only creates housing for newcomers but easy access to jobs “right off the boat”. Keeping in mind that New York is a large nation, the ILGO focuses heavily on distributing immigrants around the country, both to prevent them from becoming a majority in any one locale and also to expand the population of the nation’s frontiers. Land in the hinterlands are sold on the cheap to families immigrating in, and by the end of the year “Little Dublins” are created around Buffalo, Syracuse, and Burlington.
-In June, nationalists in the government make complaints of the President Rensselaer’s immigration policies. As a compromise, an army recruitment plan is made in which fast-tracked citizenship is given to immigrants who enlist for a minimum of 4 years in the army or navy. To ensure those who sign up will use their future citizenship loyally, recruits are drilled with patriotism of New York. Few immigrants complain about the drilling, as loyalty to a nation that isn’t in the middle of a deadly famine is not hard to give.
-As part of the deal to the nationalists to allow immigrants in the army, funding for the expansion of the military academy at West Point is given so that more sons of born-and-bred New York families, particularly those of large land-owning families, are given leadership of the military forces.
-Though much of the president’s time is spent in either Albany, New York City, or his manor, in July he becomes moved by viewing a landscape painting by Thomas Cole of the beauty of central New York. With this in mind, he works with the National Assembly, particularly across the aisle with the more liberal members, to pass the National Monuments Act of 1850 in which lumber companies and deforestation for agriculture is banned in parts of the Catskills, Adirondacks, and Green Mountains in hopes of preserving “the eternal beauty of the land for posterity”. As part of a personal rider from the president, the Act also creates public funding for the Hudson River School art movement in which painters aiming to capture the beauty of the land are commissioned by the government.
-While much of the national assembly’s time is focused on immigration and land reform, in late August, with the president’s approval, the purchase of several fortifications along the Gold Coast in Africa is made from Denmark. While costing a fortune for New York, it’s believed to be worth the investment as it gives the American nation a financial and economic foothold across the ocean that no other American country has.
-Before adjourning for the beginning of winter, the government passes the National Waterways Act, a large funding bill for the expansion of ports in New York and Jersey City, as well as numerous river towns along the Hudson River into the heart of the nation. The goal of the bill is to facilitate more ship construction as well as ease of commerce up and down the nation’s most vital river.


Pennsylvania Flag.png
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - Gnomical
President: Francis R. Shunk
Capital: Philadelphia
Largest City: Philadelphia

-As the new year of 1850 begins, the government of President Shunk builds a policy of manifest destiny westward. Large funds are given to railroad companies to carve a path from Philadelphia halfway through the nation to the central Pennsylvanian city of Pittsburgh. Throughout the year, much rail is placed in the east, though construction slows heavily once approaching the Appalachian mountains where cartographers must decide which mountain to go around or which to tunnel under.
-Hoping to entice more immigration to the western frontier as well as other remote regions of the country, the Frontier Land Grant Tax Act is passed by the national assembly. The program offers government owned land on the frontiers to private citizens at very cheap rates with a gradual tax incline over the years. The goal is to tax pioneers accordingly to their development of the land they own, which becomes lucrative to many Pennsylvanians living in the east. Companies are given special tax incentives as well and Pittsburgh throughout the year sees almost a ten percent increase in population.
-Knowing that a growing population unchecked could lead to chaos, the President’s cabinet organizes a national policing program in which volunteer citizens in towns around the border and frontier are to be called upon to aid law enforcement in the event of riots, crime waves, or illegal bounty hunting. By the end of the year, the policy sees mixed success as many towns throughout the mountains see a reduction in crime, but most along the southern border keep reports of slave bounty hunters still operating. The Attorney General’s department suspects by the end of the year that the continue operation is more due to bribes than citizen apathy.
-To gain a better foothold on curbing bounty hunters coming into the Commonwealth, the Philadelphia government expands its diplomatic mission to the Republic of Maryland to the south. By strengthening relations with its southern neighbor, it is hoped that any illegal activities coming from the Cotton Kings of the south can be stopped there before reaching Pennsylvanian soil. Knowing that they sit between two regional powers, President Philip Francis Thomas of Maryland accepts the diplomats so long as he is not pressured to do anything proactive against Virginia.
-Understanding that Maryland, while friendly, must always take the middle ground between Virginian and Pennsylvanian foreign policies, the army is ordered to construct additional fortifications along the southern border, especially in the east to protect any southern invasion from capturing the capital of Philadelphia. By year’s end, the Susquehanna River becomes heavily fortified as the “first and last line of defense”.
-The Republic of Canada on the other side of Lake Erie, is also a target of President Shunk’s diplomatic goals. A delegation is sent to Toronto in June where plans to exchange embassies are announced. A trade deal is made out by the end of the month in which Pennsylvanian agricultural goods are exchanged for sturdy Canadian lumber as well as shared access to fishing rights on the Great Lakes.
-Though President Shunk’s priorities have been to grow relations with immediate neighbors, an envoy of Cherokee to Philadelphia is welcomed warmly by his government. After a few weeks of negotiation, a trade deal is reached in which Pennsylvania machinery is exported from Pittsburgh down the Ohio River in exchange for raw materials from Cherokia sent back. Along with immigration westward and the preamble to an industrial boom, Pittsburgh quickly is pegged as the fastest growing and most important city in the nation by many newspapers, surpassing the capital for the first time in the country’s history.
-While the land between Virginia and Philadelphia is being fortified, the National Assembly manages to pass the Naval Renewal Act in September. The law enables the Pennsylvanian navy to add additional ships, from corvettes to a few more battleships to the navy. By years end, construction in Philadelphian dry docks as well as in Little Egg Harbor on the Atlantic coast is begun.


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Commonwealth of Virginia - Joshuadium
President: Abraham Lincoln
Capital: Richmond
Largest City: Norfolk

-President Lincoln begins the year signing an order banning the importation and international trade of slaves with the Commonwealth. There is a vocal disapproval by the conservatives in the government, but because the ban has no impact on slaves already owned in the nation, little action is actually taken against Virginia’s first non-slave-owning president.
-Working with the liberal minority in the House of Burgundy, Lincoln manages to organize a complex tax plan in the early spring. Using existing property tax laws, a levy is pushed on the ownership of slaves. Using his political talent, the President manages to get the tax passed with the majority conservative government by splitting his opposition on the matter by reducing many taxes on industry and business ventures. While all the conservatives in government support the institute of slavery, only a minority are actual owners, and so the business tax decrease manages to appeal to many non-owning conservatives.
-Much of the funding earmarked from the rise in slave-taxation is put toward a newly created public school system for all the white children of Virginia. Initial construction of elementary schools are built in the major cities of the country so the requirement of children to attend up to the age of 14 can be fulfilled.
-The Virginian government orders an overhaul of the military forces. Having not seen combat or conflict in some years, it is feared that should a war come the army and navy may be ill-equipped. To revitalize Virginia’s great army, units are organized to have monthly drills and ten-mile marches to keep the men in fit and disciplined order.
-When news of Cherokia’s purchase of English steamships reaches Richmond, a flurry of funds are collected to rebuild the Virginian Navy. Ships in service are all scheduled for inspection in the drydocks of Norfolk to mend even the smallest repairs needed while the older ships are scuttled or sold to private owners.


Next Turns Due Saturday, February 2nd 2019
 

Attachments

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#5
CHAPTER II: “The American Scholar”


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Turn Music - “Ring, Ring, de Banjo” by Stephen Foster of Pennsylvania




World Events, Year of Our Lord Eighteen Hundred Fifty One:

-Self-proclaimed brother of Jesus Christ, Hong Xiuquan, takes leadership of the Taiping Rebellion in China against the Qing Dynasty.
-Slavery is abolished in Peru, Ecuador, and Argentinian Confederation in South America.
-Young Irish men in the British colony of Newfoundland form the Éire Naofa Movement with political goals of securing the rights of the Irish and Catholics in the colony.
-Bush fires sweep across the state of Victoria in Australia, devastating much of the land.
-A Carolinian bounty hunter is lynched in Connecticut by an abolitionist mob as he attempted to abduct a young negro, causing a diplomatic incident between Boston and Raleigh.
-Mexican pioneers build a settlement along the Rio Culebra naming it San Luis de la Culebra.
-Ramón Castilla loses the Peruvian presidency to José Rufino Echenique in April after 6 years in power.
-The Great Flood of 1851: After days of intense rainfall, the Mormon Republic of Zion is devastated by flooding, with some settlements nearly completely washed away.
-The sport of “baseball” grows in popularity Commonwealth of New England. Major games are also played in the Republic of New York with varying rules, though the popularity of state lacrosse begins to eclipse it.
-Chile experiences a year long revolution by liberal forces attempting to oust conservative president Manuel Montt. Despite the conflict lasting throughout 1851, Montt manages to crush the rebellion before the year’s end.
-German mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi dies February 18th.
-Ex-slave Frederick Douglass and abolitionist Gerrit Smith merge abolitionist newspapers North Star and Liberty Party Paper into Frederick Douglass’ Paper.
-A large Commanche raid of 50 or 70 men burn settlements and homesteads along the Texas border, pressuring President Houston to declare war on the violent natives in October.
-Sparked by fears of Louisianan interests in the Ozark Federation, vocal abolitionist John Brown travels to the country from his home nation of New England.
-Isaac Singer patents his sewing machine in the Republic of New York and founds the Singer Sewing Machine Company.
-Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones create The New York Daily-Times newspaper, while the international news service Rueters is founded.
-Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick is published.

Current Player Involved Conflicts:
Venezuelan Secession War: United Venezuelan States + Republic of Ecuador vs. Gran Colombia (Since June, 1850)
Illinois Confederacy Civil War: Illinois Confederacy vs. Cahokia People + Cherokia

Other Conflicts in the Western Hemisphere:
West Texas Conflict: Comancheria vs. Republic of Texas
Ecuador-Peruvian War: Republic of Ecuador vs. Republic of Peru


Alta Flag.png
Republic of Alta - Milke
President: Michael Quixano
Capital: Sacramento
Largest City: Sacramento


-As winter draws to an end and the gold fields begin to thaw, President Quixano orders an expedition north to find friendship with the settlements of Russian trappers. Camp Vesperia is established along Puget Sound as it is strategically defensible from the ocean as well as halfway between Alta’s current borders and the Russians. To insure no conflict with local natives, a treaty is signed with Chief Seattle, leader of the Duwamish Peoples which receive some muskets from the Altans in return for food and peace.

-With Camp Vesperia fully defended and furnished, trade with Russian fur trappers slowly begins throughout the spring, many of which start to use the camp as a stop to rest before going to Alta proper to sell their pelts.

-Using the investments by French financiers and the large stockpile of gold accumulating in the country, the government chooses to use it as a means of securing the financial future of the nation. Plans for a large port with fortifications are made for the northern shores of San Francisco Bay, just across the water from the small Mexican settlement of San Francisco. The settlement is named Fort Rocinante, after the fort that is constructed first with Alta’s best cannon to defend it. Throughout the late spring and the entire summer, construction is done on the fort, the ports, and a future naval dockyard. To help increase both trade into the interior of Alta and speed communication from the ocean to the government, a ferry service is made to go from Fort Rocinante up the Sacramento River to the capitol.

-In July, the true test of the Republic’s ability to govern itself is made when President Quixano nationalizes the gold mines throughout the nation in order to safeguard the precious resource. A riot of mine owners and prospectors erupts in Sacramento, but is prevented from becoming too violent by the Altan militia, proving them to be loyal to the nation than their wallets. As the riots and protests die down, a plan to allow miners to return to their jobs without hindrance is made so long as they pledge a simple allegiance to the the Republic of Alta, which all do without hesitation.

-As the government solidifies its governance over its borders, a delegation lead by General Andrés Pico is sent to Paris to once more petition the French to recognize the Republic of Alta as an independent state from the Empire of Mexico. Already intervening on behalf of another secessionist movement in South America and eager to keep relations with Mexico due to its silver trade and France’s hold over Mexican bonds, they are formally turned down but the delegation is invited to remain in Paris for the foreseeable future as “unofficial unrecognized representatives” until politics in the western hemisphere change.

-As the mines begin to produce revenue for the government, President Quixano works with bankers and the government to reinvest it into diversifying the economy, stating, “Gold is precious but not edible.” Large tracts of lands are developed by the government and then sold to homesteaders with a number of tools and infrastructure of farming already there, allowing for immediate exploitation of the soil.

-By the end of the year, the first crops harvested before the snow falls is in such excess that farmers begin to sell some to San Francisco markets, despite the city being “on the other side of the border” with imperial Mexico.



Cherokee Flag.png
Cherokia - Sobotnik
First Beloved Man: Major Ridge
Capital: Cutonuga
Largest City: Cutonuga


-The beginning of 1851 is marked by fear for their fellow Amerindians following the crushing defeat of the Seminole peoples in south Florida the past year. An urgent envoy is sent by the government to Savannah to meet with Georgian officials about allowing refugees into Cherokia. With the thought of ridding natives from the newly acquired lands as a dream come true, President Stephens allows as many Seminoles that desire to leave to flee to Cherokia however only under the rule that they swear to never take up arms against Georgia again and that they be evacuated by sea, rather than allowing them into the interior of Georgia to reach Cherokee territory. Throughout the late winter, the Cherokia steamships are put to heavy use making continual rounds between the Bay of Tampa and Maubila.

-As the Seminole evacuation wraps up, Chief Ridge makes a trip to the Shawnee Confederation to create an Amerindian alliance to prevent another native fall to Anglo-American nations. Though the Shawnee have prided themselves on preserving their people from invasion on their own for many years, after a compassionate speech to the Council of Chiefs on the changing times, the Shawnee Confederacy votes for an alliance.

-After the trip to the Shawnee, Ridge and his delegation travels to the Illinois Confederacy to work out a similar deal. The Council of Twelve meets with Ridge, but strong in pride and disgust with the Cherokee willingness to convert his people to “the ugly world of the whites”, they reject his treaty for an alliance. Before Ridge leaves, however, chiefs from the Cahokia Peoples who live along the Ohio River and so are in greatest threat to Anglo-American invasion promise to break their tribe from the Confederation to become a protectorate of the Cherokee. When word breaks out of the “Cahokia betrayal”, the other tribes lead by the Peoria and Kaskaskia Peoples attack the Cahokia lands.

-Throughout most of the spring and early summer, the Illinois Confederacy manage to conquer and occupy the Cahokia lands, driving many across the Ohio River to the safety of fortified Cherokee towns. A plea is sent by Cutonuga to the Shawnee to enact their new alliance, but the envoy returns empty handed, dictating that the “Shawnee will fight with the Cherokee only against the whites, not our own” and remain neutral in the conflict for the rest of the year.

-The Illinois, unable to cross the Ohio due to the artillery at Unegvadisi, remain on the northern banks throughout most of the summer. During this time, the Cherokee Army makes use of a new treaty with the Kingdom of Louisiana to train themselves with a war game. The three weeks of practice attacks on the French military boost morale of the Cherokee with their new rifles and the inclusion of some experienced Seminole warriors. Just prior to the first autumn chills, the Cherokee Army with Cahokia warriors invade the Illinois Confederacy to liberate their new ally’s homeland, driving out the Kaskaskia and Peoria easily with a number of skirmishes.

-Throughout the summer, awaiting for the army to train and mobilize, Cherokia’s government makes use of its time by focusing on pressing domestic issues. Despite the fertile land the Cherokee own, they do not have the numbers to successfully compete with crop exports of its neighbors and so ranching is encouraged with importation of herds of cattle, many of which come from Texas and southern Georgia. As many farms convert their lands to the more lucrative leather trade, the need for slaves diminishes throughout the country.

-The Traditionalists in government push through a deal with the Modernists to establish a number of state-funded museums, art galleries, and theaters to promote a Cherokee twist and flavor of common European-themed structures. A number of Cherokee musicians begin to experiment with traditional instruments by the end of the year with notable symphonies of Mozart.

-While the Traditionalists managed to push Cherokee culture through an education plan the prior year, the Modernists in government push a sequel law creating a Amerindian university system in which European scholars are encouraged to teach at. Despite refusal from the most prominently educated men of Europe to come teach in a “backwater of the Americas”, the offer attracts many lesser known scholars, inventors, and mathematicians who see the Cherokee offer to teach in the country as a chance for the limelight.

-As construction of the railroad between Unegvadisi and Maubila finishes construction, raw material production is increased to help finance the expenses. Despite designed to move iron ore and coal throughout Cherokia, many of the trips the locomotives make by the end of the summer are used to ship newly purchased British cannons to the north to help in the Illinois civil war.

-Over the decades, many negro slaves have escaped from the the surrounding Anglo- and Franco-American nations into Cherokia, finding safety, a new life, and in many cases, love. From this love has grown a number of Afro-Amerindians throughout Cherokia by the 1850s. With the rise of abolition movements in the northeast of the continent and in Europe, an organization named “Civilization Against Enslavement” is founded with the goals of pressuring Catunuga into pushing for a more general abolitionist foreign policy toward Cherokia’s slave-holding neighbors.



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The Georgian Republic - Ruski
President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Capital: Savannah
Largest City: Atlanta


-Slightly chilled by the winter weather, the government of Georgia in Savannah organize an end to the Fifth Seminole War with a treaty to Cherokia, which, concerned for the wellbeing of fellow natives, opened its borders to Seminole refugees. Under the terms of the treaty, any Seminole warrior that flees to Cherokia must first make a solemn vow to never return or take up arms against Georgia. All who go say the words, but many army officers that oversee the oaths feel dissatisfied with the sincerity but glad to now have the entire peninsula open to white settlement and profiteering.

-With the southern peninsula finally under secure Georgian control and friendly borders everywhere else, President Stephens works throughout the early spring redirecting military expenditures. The need for a well-funded army is nearing its end and more funds are directed toward the navy, particularly to overhaul the cannons of the current fleet as well as put on reinforced metal plating.

-Seeing the rise in the use of breech-loading rifles over current musket models, many Georgian gunsmiths and workshops begin switching over production to keep up with the demand for new weaponry.

-To help give incentives for gunsmiths to further their craft, the government works out an export deal to the Empire of Mexico and the Austrian Empire for Georgian rifles. By the end of the year, the first cargo vessels make their way to Veracruz and Rijeka.

-As Irish immigrants come into Georgia, conservative protestant politicians in Savannah manage to push through the Christian Relief Tax Ordinance, a tax break that scales with the number of children white Georgian families have, with the stipulation that one child must already be born while the head of the household is employed in some manner. The goal is to relieve pressure on Georgian families with many mouths to feed while also encouraging the growth of the white Georgian population.

-In order to better communicate with naval affairs and the rest of the country, extensive telegraph lines are established between the ports in Jacksonville and the cities of Atlanta and Savannah throughout the late spring, with plans to erect more throughout out Georgia as settlements grow in the peninsula.

-As July approaches, President Stephens orders the new drydocks of Jacksonville on behalf of the Georgian national assembly to build more ships for an expanding Georgian Navy. Special funds are put to constructing military steamships with iron plating on the sides for added protection. Knowing the British Navy is the most powerful expansive in the world, Georgian officials tour through London and Liverpool on a recruitment drive of former English sailors to come to Georgia and help train and revitalize the naval officer corps. By the end of the summer, men with large mustaches and thick scouse accents yell and drill Georgian seamen across the ships.

-While the navy goes through a massive overhaul, some units of the Army are ordered to practice beach landing techniques from naval ships. Throughout the early fall until the seas become too cold and choppy, men under the supervision of Lieutenant Colonel Longstreet repetitively row large dories to shore and quickly organize their formations on the beach before going through a two mile march and then back to sea again.



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Kingdom of Louisiana - Pez
Monarch: Napoleon III
Capital: New Orleans
Largest City: New Orleans


-As warm breezes coming from the Gulf blow away the last chills of winter in early March, managing the economy for the year’s trade up and down the Mississippi once again takes priority for the government. After debate of financiers and wealthy men in the royal parliament pass the Royal Metal Standards Act, putting Louisiana on a bimetallism standard of silver and gold, 16 to 1, and establish the Royal Bank of Louisiana as a national bank.

-Just before the spring planting season begins, a sweeping tax break is given to farmers to help encourage a number of crops in Louisiana, including rice, soy, and sugar. A secondary subsidy is given to fishermen to make the Gulf of Mexico a more financially sound location to work.

-While the Three Cotton Kings - Virginia, Carolinas, and Georgia - are known the most for growing cotton in the Americas, the government in New Orleans passes a large subsidy for cotton growers in the kingdom to help compete with its southern neighbors. Parts of the law give tax breaks specifically to Irish immigrants to allow them to purchase land more easily and cheaply. Though the institute of slavery remains in the Kingdom of Louisiana, by the end of the year it is able to advertise its cotton as “immigrant grown”, though no distinction of cotton from Irish farms or slave plantations is made on export boxes.

-To help solidify the legitimacy of his throne and to ensure a royal lineage, King Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte asks for the hand of marriage of a noble Frenchwoman, Lady Catherine de Vendome, a cousin of the late Bourbon prince Louis-Joseph. Though not having yet met him, Lady Catherine accepts the proposal and moves to Louisiana from France in April, with a royal marriage three weeks later presided over by the Archbishop of New Orleans. Though clearly a marriage for politics, many newspapers in New Orleans write articles from “anonymous insider sources” that the pair have legitimately fallen in love.

-Not wanting romance to get in the way of work entirely, King Napoleon takes his bride on a state visit to the Ozark Federation in May for a honeymoon. Though Springfield is the capital of the federation, Napoleon uses his prestige of visiting to pressure President John C. Frémont to come to him in St. Louis, where constant leaks of their discussions are made to the newspapers - majority of which write of the king’s concerns for the poor and destitute around the whole continent and his “dire desire” to end poverty, leaving praise only for Louisiana’s monarch and little commendation for any of Frémont’s politics.

-Upon returning home, Napoleon III reaches across the aisle of the liberal side of parliament to pass the L'extinction Du Pauperism Act, creating a scaled property tax across the land and using the revenue to fund education programs, particularly to instruct immigrants in the French language. The law causes an uproar among the landed gentry, many of whom accuse the king of indirectly attacking the institute of slavery as the largest plantations own majority of the enslaved negroes in the kingdom.

-The beginning of the summer marked by the signing of a peace agreement with the Amerindian neighbor of Cherokia. Under the the deal, goods from the east are imported with cheapened tariffs while the Royal Army and the Army of the Cherokee hold a three week long annual war game called “Chasseur Indigène” near the border where the Mississippi begins to divide the nations. The games go well, with French officers impressed by the accuracy and speed in which the Cherokee used their breech-loading rifles over their own muskets and soon after the war department begins issuing orders to replace the military’s weapons with more modern equipment.

-The closeness of Louisiana and Cherokia comes under fire by some newspapers toward the end of the summer as trade from the Ohio River becomes restricted due to the Cherokia-Illinois war, some blaming the war games as an “encouragement of the savagery of Indians” and giving the Cherokee the ability to prolong the conflict.

-Toward the beginning of fall, the commerce department overseeing trade on the Mississippi diminish a degree launch a large construction project of building railroads from major river towns to the interior of the country. The hope is to pull the commerce and wealth of the river westward as well as allowing farmers and plantation owners in the west to more easily export their goods, thus easing the economic burden from up river.


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Republic of New York - Native Hunter
President: Stephan Van Rensselaer IV
Capital: Albany
Largest City: New York City


-President Rensselaer spends much of the late winter working with the national assembly to consolidate their new African acquisitions purchased the year before. A thousand men are ordered to occupy the five forts in West Africa, garrisoning 200 men in each. After they arrive, the commanders of the forts make their way into the interior of the continent to meet with local tribesmen to announce New York presence and negotiate trade. The tribesmen along the coast welcome the New Yorkers as they had good relations with the previous Danish occupants, allowing the forts to have friendly neighbors in the land between them.

-The commanders then enter the Kingdom of Dahomey to meet with King Ghezo to enter in trade relations. King Ghezo offers slaves in return for guns as he has offered to European powers, but the New York military officers turn down the deal. With no alternative in his thought, the African monarch lets the Ango-Americans leave empty handed until they can come up with a better offer.

-Understanding that forts along the African coast are only as safe and economical if the Republic of New York can reach them, the navy receives funds to increase the size of the fleet. Many of the vessels are named after famous New Yorkers and American Revolution war heroes, such as the NYS Schulyer, NYS Franklin, and NYS Putnam.

-Delegates are sent to London, Paris, and Amsterdam in late spring to negotiate the acceptance of the Danish-New York fort deal. France and the Dutch accept the treaty as valid, though the British parliament voice a great deal of opposition unless New York agrees to both avoid the slave trade and crush any trade that the forts may come across.

-Meanwhile in spring, the Hudson Valley has a mining boom of clay due to the massive construction projects south in New York City. Brick factories soon pop up along the river, bringing both jobs and an economic boom to the region.

-Freshly graduated officers from West Point, having studied heavily of the Napoleonic Wars, push the General Staff to increase the army’s number of cannon. The government soon concedes to the army’s wishes and several foundries are constructed in the city of Buffalo.

-The national assembly and senate, being composed of mostly wealthy New York elites and landowners, pass the Land Recovery Act in June of 1851, permitting the sale of uninhabited New York land. Through loopholes, dodgy pricing, and incredibly specific tax breaks, majority of the land that is purchased after the law is passed just so happens to be the very men or relatives of them who created the law.

-Despite much of the land going to landed gentry, some common good is derived from the Land Recovery Act’s smaller articles that allots tracts of territory for a national railroad grid. With planned connections from New York City to Buffalo, Syracuse, Burlington, Albany, and Montpelier, surveyors map out the country for the routes to take while noting which hamlets and towns would make excellent stops along major routes.

-Impressed by the fitness and athleticism of the Iroquois in New York, the government passes the National Lacrosse League Act, nationalizing the lacrosse sport throughout the country and give greater attention to it. With its popularity already present in the west of the nation, it immediately begins competing for fans with the emerging sport of baseball, a regional favorite. Despite this, the first major game is set up for the early spring of next year, between two new teams, the Bisons and the Comrades.



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Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - Gnomical
President: Francis R. Shunk
Capital: Philadelphia
Largest City: Pittsburgh


-Despite the cold winds, President Shunk sails to Boston in late January to meet with President Anderson of the Commonwealth of New England. There, he spends several weeks negotiating trade deals between the two commonwealths as well as working out a treaty of mutual defense. The hope is, should Pennsylvania be attacked, the New England Navy will provide assistance immediately.

-When the president returns to Philadelphia, he works with the national assembly to help relieve the pressure on Boston with Irish immigrants by enacting laws that open the Frontier Land Grant Tax Act of 1850 to foreigners. While those that migrate from across the continent and Europe to settle in western Pennsylvania are not given immediate citizenship, a pledge of allegiance and a number of required years of residence gives an easy path for newcomers, or a shorter number of years with military service.

-In honor of Pennsylvania’s most famous citizens, a newly built science university in the capital is christened as the Franklin Institute. The university’s goals are to educate and promote the sciences in the nation while being well-funded by the government.

-Not wanting to fall behind the prestigious military academies of West Point or the Virginia Military Institute, the Commonwealth Army is given funds to establish the Reading Military Academy in the city of the same name outside of Philadelphia. As the campus finishes construction in the late spring, the first cadets are sworn in and immediately begin tinkering with the superiority of breech-loading rifles over the current musket models. Throughout the year, the cadets manage to promote the use of them over the current weapons in the army.

-In the summer, the government raises property taxes throughout the country by a small percentage to help fuel national infrastructure projects, including the westward railroad.

-By the end of the year, immigration to the city Pittsburgh surpasses its population of the capital, the first city in the country to ever do so. Despite this, many fear for Pittsburgh’s economic growth to match its inhabitant rise as the conflict between the Cherokee and Illinois Confederacy begin to choke the flow of goods up and down the Ohio River.



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Republic of Quebec - Heyitsjiwon
President: Wolfred Nelson
Capital: Quebec City
Largest City: Montreal


-As a light snow falls in Quebec City, the newly formed conservative government makes quick use of their newly gained political power in January by passing several laws regarding education and the clergy, allowing many to have freedom to teach theology in schools and put priests on education councils throughout the nation. Heavily favored by President Nelson, newspapers in Montreal dub the collection of laws “The Nelson Laws”.

-Following the passing of The Nelson Laws, the government moves to allow open immigration of anyone baptized Roman Catholic from Europe and those from France in particular. Irish immigrants immediately begin making their way to Montreal, surprisingly more so from neighboring Labrador than Ireland, while many young French supporters of the Party of Order in France make their way to Quebec seeking a potential political career in a nation sharing similar values, politics, and language.

-Fearing that the Québécois military may not have the full strength that it could, the Army of Quebec opens enlistment to the foreigners that begin to migrate to the nation. The Foreign Legion of Quebec is established shortly after, and receives more recruits as the government allows full citizenship to anyone who serves the country for ten years.

-As the late spring thaws the snow and ice, an expedition of the newly formed Foreign Legion is sent to the far northern reaches to occupy Baffin Island. They settle construct a fort in an area the native Inuits call “Iqaluit” and thus name the fort as such. Two platoons of men are then sent to Cape Dorset, where they hoist the Quebec flag high over the small port to show all English vessels sailing in the Hudson Strait who owns both sides of the vital waterway.

-With the passage to the Hudson Bay in Quebec control, a passive offer to purchase lands across the water is given to the Hudson Bay Company. Having enjoyed a near monopoly of the fur trade in the region, the Company turns down the offer while British investors, many with political connections in London, worry about a conflict over the land in the future.

-While the land across the bay remains inaccessible, the government launches a cartography and geological survey of the lands that are in their control for the purpose of resource exploitation. Throughout the summer, teams survey and travel across Quebec’s wilderness and return with a report stating the largest resources in the nation is by and large great quality timber and furs. The report also list iron, gold, and asbestos as potential mining opportunities throughout the north.

-In July, realizing that large numbers of immigrants were coming to the nation, the government issues a general census to be held. Cities and settlements account for their residents throughout the late summer and fall and just prior to Christmas release a report estimating just under a million souls living in the nation, around 950,000. Majority reside in the southern regions with the population understandably growing smaller the more north one travels, though accounting of the native Inuit remain elusive.



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Commonwealth of Virginia - Joshuadium
President: Abraham Lincoln
Capital: Richmond
Largest City: Norfolk


-President Lincoln breaks from the long political battles of his majority opposition in the legislature throughout the late winter by dealing with military matters that all sides can agree on. As the use of breech-loading rifles grow in prominence around the Americas, Virginia leaps on the new weapon technology as well. Thousands of Georgian rifles are given to the Army of Virginia while older muskets are retired or allowed by the soldier to keep as a personal weapon. To help adjust the infantry to their new weapons, General Lee orders daily target practice and reloading drills for the army. As the snow thaws in the early spring, the sounds of gunfire is constantly heard around Virginian barracks and forts.

-Understanding that the breech-loaded weapons are not a super weapon and the soldiers will still be exposed to hand-to-hand combat, Colonel Pickett under Lee’s command, adds an additional weekly drill of bayonet charging.

-Throughout March and April, men from the army most familiar with the most rural lands in the nation are chosen to form an elite scouting corps, jokingly dubbed by other units as “The White Indians” or, having been put under the command of Brigadier General J. E. B. Stuart, “Stuart’s Indians”. The men use their knowledge of tracking, foraging, and general rural living to successfully train in scouting for the greater Army of Virginia.

-Receiving great praise from both sides of the aisle in Richmond, Lincoln secures a Non-Aggression Treaty with the Carolina Confederacy. The treaty allows Virginian and Carolinian armies to cease guarding their mutual border while also pledging to come to the other’s aid in the event of a war.

-Looking for an easy political win in Richmond, President Lincoln manages to pass the Urban Parks Bill, a law mandating the center of major cities in the Commonwealth to build and maintain municipal parks, allowing a public space for recreation and relaxation.

-In June, large funds are given to the Virginia Military Institute, the nation’s most prestigious military academy, to expand an R&D department to analyse new military technology and its possible applications for the army and navy.

-Throughout the summer, Richmond’s government deals with economic matters for the country by firstly managing a trade deal to reduce general tariffs between Virginia and the Republic of Maryland. A similar trade deal is brokered with Albany, Republic of New York where cotton from plantations are exported to New York textile mills.

-While the House of Burgundy is focused on economic matters, President Lincoln manages to once again split his conservatives on laws dealing with slaves. Managing to pressure an addition to the Mining Proliferation Act, which gives businesses more opportunities to mine coal and other metals in the Appalachian mountains, Virginian plantation owners are now mandated to provide adequate shelter, propper bedding, and at least one hot meal a day to their negro property. The arguments used to pass the rider is that “a healthy and happy negro is a hard working negro” to which only a few owners vote dissently to.



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United Venezuelan States - Amfleet
President: General José Antonio Páez
Capital: Caracas
Largest City: Caracas


-A Venezuelan delegation makes its way to Paris in February to garner French support for their independence. President La Valette welcomes the men who, playing on the Frenchman’s religious beliefs, manage to persuade France to send small fleet of warships as a “humanitarian effort” to the Colombian stronghold of Puerto La Cruz on the rebel’s east. Once the French navy arrives, it begins blockading the ports of any vessels from entering.

-Confident that the eastern port city cannot be reinforced by Bogota, General Páez orders his army to begin besieging. While the city itself becomes surrounded, men of Los Cosiatos manage to break through the port defenses and set fire to the warehouses and docks there. Seeing many of the city’s food stockpiles go up in flames, the mayor orders the Colombian army to stand down and allow the Venezuelan nationals to enter. Though not a very bloody battle, the decisive conquest of the east sends messages throughout the world that the Venezuelans are a powerful force and now can shift its entirely focus westward.

-Though the fires of the docks in Puerto La Cruz were an act made in the heat of battle, the rebel leaders begin to utilize it as a staged tactic against the Colombians upon seeing its success. Throughout the spring, small units of Venezuelan rebels take small sloops along the coast using hit-and-run tactics against the Colombian navy and ports. The coastal cities of Maracaibo, Santa Marta, and Barranquilla suffer major fires as well as looting of gunpowder, muskets, and any valuables that unfortunately lay stored on the docks.

-By April, President Bolivar had managed to mobilize the full force of the Gran Colombian army and orders it to march east to put down the Venezuelan rebellion. Having fought with Bolivar to liberate the nation from the Spanish decades prior, General Páez manages to anticipate the moves his opponent makes. Weak defenses are built along the assumed border between Venezuela and Colombia, which are easily broken by the invading forces. As the Colombians march eastward however, they discover farm after farm has been burned denying them critical resupplies.

-The Colombian Army, hoping to find resupply in the city of Barinas in early May and confident in winning majority of the skirmishes thus far, makes its march to the city, only to find General Páez awaiting with a Venezuelan army of equal force. The Battle of Barinas thus became the first major battle of the war, with Colombian forces outflanked and morale dropping, forcing them to retreat back west with heavy casualties.

-A week after the battle, a Los Cosiatos diplomat makes its way to the Republic of Ecuador to petition for military aid against Gran Colombia. Offering news of the successful capture of Puerto La Cruz and the Battle of Barinas, Ecuador declares war on Gran Colombia and in June marches along the coast toward the city of Cali. However, Peru seeking to exploit the growing South American conflict, immediately declares war on Ecuador in order to secure what it has long sought as its rightful boundaries.

-While the Battle of Barinas gave the Venezuelans full control of the interior of the land and Ecuadoran forces are pressuring Bogota from the west, General Páez chooses to keep a defensive posture throughout the rest of the summer, refusing to invade Gran Colombia proper to avoid being seen as the aggressor. By the end of September, Gran Colombian forces manage to hold back the Ecuadorian Army from Cali, but Peruvian forces manage to march up to the Maranon River in Ecuador’s southeast.

-Having proven to the world that the United Venezuelan States are a legitimate military and political force, General Páez at the end of the year pushes for international recognition from European states in hopes of ending the conflict soon. France immediately recognizes the nation’s sovereignty, followed by the United Kingdom and Kingdom of the Netherlands in December. While President Bolivar does not sue for peace before the turn of the new year, the growing political, military, and foreign pressure on the aging leader is becoming an unbearable burden on his shoulders.

Turn 3 Due Sunday, February 10th 2019
 
#6
The Yonah locomotive, photographed in 1852.

Purchased from Pennslyvania the previous year, it pulled the first train to Unegvadisi. While railways are not unknown in Cherokia, they have yet to reach the bulk of the nation. Five years ago, the English engineer Robert Stephenson visited to help to supervise the construction of the first railway in Cherokia (lacking work due to the railway bust in Britain, the development of which began after the railway mania of the 1840s. Traditionalists claimed that the railways would poison the water and skies, while modernists promoted the benefits of cheap and fast transportation. The railway began construction in 1847 and was completed three years later, making use of timber trestles and earthwork in its construction. Although the line was completed at the end of 1849, work still continues to upgrade the line by replacing wooden trestles with earthworks or brick bridges, and in rationalizing the route and constructing additional signal boxes and sidings to allow locomotives to pass. The network is continuing to expand, and new lines to Louisiana and Georgia are already underway. Although railways with steam locomotives have been around for only a single generation, the Americans have innovated on the basic design pioneered with the Planet locomotive considerably. Swiveling trucks under engines and wagons allow them to go around tight bends, rugged designs for the rough terrain, powerful new engines, and fireboxes that can burn wood with spark-arresting flared chimneys to prevent fires breaking out. These new powerful locomotives have been developed recently and the Yonah exemplfies many of these new traits, and even the traditionalists begrudgingly admit the power of these engines. Perhaps one day, these will rumble across all of america.
 
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#8
CHAPTER III: “Manifest Destiny”

Turn 3 but not I guess.png



Turn Music - “Do They Miss Me At Home?” by Carolina A. Mason



World Events, Year of Our Lord Eighteen Hundred Fifty Two:


-Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson form a company in the Commonwealth of New England to develop volcanic rifles.
-Cuban nationalists rise up against their Spanish colonial lords in the eastern part of the island, responding to cruelty to Cubans and preference to Spaniard-born elites in governance.
-Following President Bolivar’s surrender to Venezuelan forces, he is ousted in a coup by General José María Dionisio Melo y Ortiz over what is deemed “a failure of military command on a catastrophic scale”. The general now ruling the nation suspends the constitution ‘until the war with Ecuador can be resolved’. President Bolivar is forcibly retired to his villa in the countryside of Bogota on house arrest while Colombian forces push Ecuadorian troops into a retreat.
-State-sponsored colonization of southern Chile begins by German nationals.
-Several missionaries from the Republic of Zion are killed and scalped on the plains by the Lakota Sioux, causing concern and tension among the Mormon states.
-The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Transvaal in southern Africa.
-The first British public toilet for women opens in Bedford Street, London.
-War breaks out in South America between the State of Bueno Aires, the Argentina Confederacy, and the Republic of Entre Rios over strained border issues and water rights. Initially, the Confederacy makes large gains against Entre Rios, but is outflanked by the Buenos Aires joining the conflict.
-Rumors are made that the Five Joaquins Gang, known for horse theft and murder in California have fled north into the Republic of Alta for refuge.
-Francophones in Arcadia unite under a newly formed Parti National Français, as a growing political identity and threatens the uneasy political balance of the country under President Edmund Walker Head.
-Imperial Mexico grows concerned with the number of Anglo-American filibusters entering its northwestern territory of Sonora and Baja California.
-The conjecture of the four color theorem is proposed, as student Francis Guthrie of University College London presents the question of proving, mathematically, that no more than four colors are needed to give separate colors to bordering shapes on a map.
-Mayan nationals break out in revolt against the United States of Central America, Republic of Yucatan, and the Empire of Mexico with the goal of creating an indigenous, independent state, though the rebellions in each of the three nations go uncoordinated with one another.
-Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, victor of the Battle of Waterloo, dies from stroke related complications.
-Commonwealth of New England Presidential Elections: Republican Party nominee Franklin Pierce wins the presidency over Federalist Party incumbent Hugh J. Anderson over issues involving the nation’s interventions abroad.
-France establishes Devil’s Island in its south american territory as a penal colony.
-Louis Braille, inventor of braille and teacher of the blind, passes away.
-A Texan army expedition into Comancheria results in the Battle of Rio Grande Gorge, where Texan cavalry ambushes a large warband of Comanche travelling through the canyon. Despite the bottleneck of the terrain, Texan firearms and discipline repel the Amerindian waves of warriors twice their number. It is hoped the victory there will quiet the border, at least for a time.
-Harry Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published in Boston.


Current Player Involved Conflicts:

Yucatec War: Republic of Yucatan vs. Georgian Republic


Other Conflicts in the Western Hemisphere:

Ecuador-Peruvian War: Republic of Ecuador vs. Republic of Peru vs. Gran Colombia (Since 1851)
Rio de la Plata War: Argentina Confederacy vs. State of Bueno Aires + Republic of Entre Rios
Chiapas Rebellion: Empire of Mexico vs. Mayan Rebels
Yucatec Rebellion: Republic of Yucatan vs. Mayan Rebels
Petén Rebellion: United States of Central America vs. Mayan Rebels




Alta Flag.png
Republic of Alta - Milke
President: Michael Quixano
Governing Party: N/A
Capital: Sacramento
Largest City: Sacramento


-Having successful relationships with the Duwamish Peoples near Camp Vesperia and the Chinook Peoples further along the coast, the government in Alta launches a large annexation of land between their current borders and the Russian territories. Full of lawyers expertising in property laws due to the ‘48 Rush, a number of Altan delegates are sent to the various Amerindian peoples within the new boundaries of the country to maintain peace, entice trade, and coordinate their tribal laws with the Altan constitution. Various natives north of Sacramento, having little to experience in dealing with Anglo- or Spanish- Americans, all agree to having regional autonomy in their current lands in exchange for official Altan citizenship and remaining tax free until 1862.

-Gold, the main drive for anyone in the region to put a pickaxe into the ground, has distracted many Altans from the potential mining or use of other ore prospecting in the country. As a result, Sacramento orders large imports of iron and steel, most of which make the long trek from Pittsburgh down the Mississippi the circumventing South America six months later to Alta. Steam machinery for various mining operations or supplemental industries are also ordered but suffer the long wait of arrival, if the ships survive storms and rough seas at all. As a result, financially savvy Altans are contracted with the government to go into the eastern American nations to secure metal sources and good quality shippers. As a result, a handful make their way to a new Georgian university focusing on metallurgy in the port of Miami .

-To coordinate the massive growth in land mass that doubles the original size of Alta, President Quixano creates the Bureau of Land Management late in February. The executive department is given the order to oversee distribution of land to homesteaders through the New Lands Act of 1852 which allows any man or woman unhostile to the nation of Alta to settle in the new additions in the north free of charge on any parcel of land not claimed by the autonomous tribes. The only requirement for settlers are to officiate their claims with the BLM in order to prevent property disputes.

-With heavy funding by the legislation, the Bureau organizes a number of land surveyors and cartographers to officially map out just what Altan has put their flag on. The Altan army attaches several of its scouting units to the survey teams, where they coordinate strategic locations to put small military outposts throughout the region.

-As per the constitution, a national referendum campaign on taxation is launched in May. In return for providing public services to various cities such as firefighting, policing, and mail services, the Altan government would develop a taxation bracket system. Campaigners for the tax proposal cite the need for Altan nationalism and unity, while their opposition tout it as theft from the mines for services “grown men could do themselves”.

-The vote is put to the ballot on July 10th after a month full of fiery deliberation. When the final tally is counted, the slimmest of margins push the president’s proposal into effect. As his opposition gripes of miscounts or rigging, President Quixano pushes the measure immediately into work. As the Bureau of Land Management already established itself as competent, capable, and functioning, they are given the powers to levy the taxes, especially over the newly annexed regions while building a national census in which to address how much revenue Sacramento should receive from the residents.

-With the north handled, and the summer rush of new settlers in full swing, the government turns its eyes back to the border with Imperial Mexico and the large settlement of San Francisco. More militiamen and regular soldiers are stationed in Fort Rocinante, where they are encouraged to mingle with the townsfolk of the fort as well as take leave in across the bay in Mexican San Francisco in order to establish friendlier relations with the peasants beneath the imperial government. It goes well until a drunken brawl out of a saloon in Mexico’s side by some Altan soldiers and pro-imperialists draw the local imperial barracks to mobilize. The Altan soldiers scramble back across the bay to their fort before the Mexicans capture them and they avoid reprisal by their commanders only by addressing the fact that the Mexican army did not pursue them across the bay into Alta, something with heavy political potential.

-With France’s stonewalling on official recognition of the Republic of Alta’s independence, General Andrés Pico’s delegation is ordered from Paris to London in late July to try their luck with the English. Having absorbed several years of foreign diplomacy, Pico and his men enter the British Parliament fully armed with maps, legal arguments, moral assertions, and the strut of confidence. Three weeks of discussions with many MPs and two encounters with Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley, the United Kingdom finally agrees to recognize the Republic of Alta and its recent annexations as independent from the Empire of Mexico, the essential turning point in Alta’s preservation of equality among men compared to Mexico’s institution of slavery.



Cherokee Flag.png
Cherokia - Sobotnik
First Beloved Man: Major Ridge
Governing Party: Modernists
Capital: Cutonuga
Largest City: Cutonuga


-With the successful occupation of Cohokia tribal lands, Major Ridge sends his son John Ridge to negotiate a peace treaty with the Illinois Confederacy. When the Cherokee delegation arrives at the Council of Tribes, they lay out bluntly that Cherokia’s military and technological strength has been no match for the Illinois and that peace is the only solution for all tribes. The Cherokee then wait for twelve days as the Illinois tribes debate among themselves the merits of peace versus drawing Cohokia back into their fold. After deliberations are over, a peace treaty is announced in which the Illinois will cede Cohokia to Cherokia and accept a trade deal in order to modernize their own tribes. However, the Kaskaskia Tribe angered by the peace, cede themselves from the Confederacy at the end of February.

-With both banks of the Ohio River under Cherokia control, John Ridge leaves the Illinois Confederacy directly to Cherokee ally, the Shawnee Confederacy. Once in Prophetstown, negotiations are held to extend the Cherokee railroad system to the Shawnee capital, which is immediately agreed to.

-Upon John Ridge’s return to his father at Cutonuga, the Cherokia government immediately creates a national infrastructure plan, designing a web of railroads throughout the nation and parts of western Georgia. To help move the project along, construction of new locomotives are ordered by the government as well as the expansion of coal and iron mines in the east Appalachia.

-To help attract and promote the growth of new inventions in Cherokia, a national patent office is created. Applications are streamlined for ease, and the government offers free translation of patents into English and French. The hope for quantity over quality of patents for Cherokia soon attracts many failed inventors or ostracized theoreticians from Europe who hope to gain funding by a native people they think they can dazzle with European ingenuity.

-With the number of Europeans taking interest in settling in Cherokia, citizenship tests are pushed out to ensure the culture of the nation survives, though with few actual limits, primarily a test in understand Cherokee and at least some familiarity with one other major native tongue in the country.

-With peace among the Illinois and friendship growing with the Shawnee, Cherokee linguists travel to both confederacies to map out ways of putting the various tongues of those tribes to paper like the Cherokee have done so for the past decades. Some elders reject the notion or at times, even the possibility, of putting sounds on paper but most of tribes cooperate.

-Major Ridge, in feeling the grips of his age throughout the year, has his thoughts on the medical advancements he has seen in his lifetime. With that in mind, he works with the government to push a law requiring all districts to maintain at least one hospital, as sanitary as possible, with modernized, universal vaccinations.

-Junaluska, head warchief of the Cherokee army, instructs units to begin training with entrenching tools, building trenches and defensive ramparts. He becomes impressed by the speed in which the Amerindian warriors take to the tool and quickly mandates that every soldier gains one issued alongside a firearm. Delving deeply into European books regarding war and conflict, the general becomes impressed by stories of the Kingdom of Prussia and its successes in the French & Indian War to modern days. He immediately brings his research to the government, which agree to enact several military reforms with a conscription program backed by a volunteer reserve. With the national rail service well underway, plans to incorporate the mobilization of troops with locomotives begins to be planned as well.



Flag of Georgia.png
The Georgian Republic - Ruski
President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Governing Party:
Capital: Savannah
Largest City: Atlanta


-With the weather warming into spring mid-March, construction begins in Savannah of the newly created First Bank of Georgia, a central bank running on bimetallism which has become a popular currency-backing in the Americas. When construction of the Greek-Revival style building completes in August, lines of credit are issued to citizens around the capital, while plans of expanding branches in Atlanta and Jacksonville are made for the next year.

-As economic competition with the other two Cotton Kings continues, the city of Atlanta considers ways in which to promote its wealth without large costs to potential businessmen and investors. With consideration, large number of abandoned warehouses, foundries, and workshops in the city and along the Chattahoochee River are purchased from their property owners. The city then spends the next few months funding the refurbishment of each site and then rents them to developing businesses on the cheap. City officials praise the recycling of old buildings and helping grow the industry of the city by preventing up-and-coming businessmen from overspending on infrastructure.

-As the launch of the first few iron-armored naval vessels go to sea, President Stephens works with the Georgian legislature to pass further funding bills to construct several more ships. With the prominence of the Georgian Navy on the rise, the president touts it as a political success that can be used in campaigning in future elections.

-The development of Georgian arms has led to the rise of foundries and metallurgical sciences dispersed sporadically throughout the republic. The knowledge and experience of blacksmiths and chemists throughout the country soon becomes blended, then distilled, as development into the Florida peninsula grows. The culmination is given physical housing in the developing port city of Miami as a university focusing on chemistry is built. While the bulk of students are Georgians, a handful of Altans gain admittance, rumored by pay-off than actual experience in such fields but the financial spike helps gain the school notoriety.

-On a hot day in July, President Stephens has state dinner with ambassador Jose Carlos Santiago of the Republic of Yucatan. Over the course of the banquet, tensions rise between the statesmen over discussions of slavery. Near the end of the event, direct and vulgar insults are scolded between many of those participating, resulting in the Yucatan ambassador storming out of the hall, rebutted a single day later with Stephen’s order for the expulsion of the entire Yucatan diplomatic mission to Georgia. The Republic of Yucatan, seeking to dispute the expulsion, announces a full embargo on all Georgian products and furthers the strain by harassing Georgian ships in the Caribbean. The diplomatic spat concludes with the Georgian government declaring war on the Mexican republic.

-Having trained for beach landings aggressively the past year, Lieutenant Colonel Longstreet is given a promotion to Brigadier General and ordered to coordinate with the growing Georgian navy to invade the Yucatan peninsula. With their opponent already entrenched in a bloody rebellion of indigenous Mayans, it is hoped the conquest of the Yucatan will be quick without difficulty.

-On August 2nd, Longstreet’s 1,500 men land on the northern beaches of the Yucatan and begin to march on the city of Panabá as a vanguard for the remaining 10,000 Georgian troops to land ashore. Sporadic skirmishes are encountered throughout the march, but full battle is not fought until just outside the city, where superior Georgian arms and discipline easily overcome the smaller Yucatan military and Longstreet victoriously conquers, enters, and occupies the first foreign city.

-Plans to launch a conquest of the capital of Mérida are put together as more Georgians come through the beachhead. But before a march westward can be assembled, a malaria outbreak among the troops spread throughout several companies. As mid September passes, the march continues to be delayed as the disease cripples the Georgian army, though not enough to keep an adequate defense of what has been captured thus far.

-President Stephens lets the army in the Yucatan occupied area wait for recovery and continues on to other foreign affairs until news of continued campaigning comes. He sends an envoy to the Department of Panama governor in Gran Colombia, Tomás de Herrera to establish friendly relations directly with the territory. The subversion of Bogota’s authority goes very noticed by General José María Melo, though with the secession of Venezuela and the war between Ecuador presses him away from dealing with the issue.

-As the occupation of Panabá goes throughout the rest of the year, Georgian soldiers healthy enough to patrol are ordered to round up Yucatan Africans, chain then, and board them onto naval vessels to return to Georgia as newly acquired slaves. This sparks an outrage among the Yucatan government who vow revenge despite heavily split between their Mayan rebellion and the Georgian invasion. The United Kingdom, hearing the news of Georgia’s actions, begins sending the Royal Navy into the Caribbean to patrol, causing a rise in tensions between the European power and Savannah going into the new year.



Flag of Louisiana.png
Kingdom of Louisiana - Pez
Monarch: Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte I
Governing Party: Parti Régimist
Capital: New Orleans
Largest City: New Orleans


-Knowing the fiery rhetoric abolitionist John Brown can use to rile a crowd against a politician, institute or country with ties to slavery, the kingdom’s government enacts a series of policies to counteract whatever unfavorable prattle he yells in the Ozarks. Pamphlets exhorting the policies of L'extinction Du Pauperism Act and its heavy taxation on slave owners are dispersed throughout the Federation while many Louisianan expatriates make public statements about the “considerable compassion of the king.”

-Hoping to double down on the publicity of the L'extinction Du Pauperism Act pamphlets, many are published in France as well. While Quebec advertises itself as a conservative francophile American state, the pamphlets promote the kingdom’s progressiveness instep with French freethinkers as well as an “heir to the monarchies of old”. Throughout the rest of the year, many of the lower classes of France, either seeking their fortune or those reminiscing of Napoleon Bonaparte’s victories, begin immigrating to New Orleans.

-Recognition of Venezuela following their victory over Colombian forces is enacted by New Orleans in April. Immediately afterward, a trade deal is agreed with Louisiana’s new Caribbean neighbor. Cretonne sewn clothing and engine parts are exported to Venezuela in return for cheap prices on oranges, limes, coffee beans, and other agrarian products. With growing foreign trade in mind, the government orders the expansion of ports across the nation’s coast. Despite the hopes for four or five new docks, surveyors report back that the deep swamps of the country’s border with the Gulf leaves only one feasible area - Cypremort Point on Vermilion Bay. But immediate orders to begin construction there are stalled further by the rugged swamp inland slowing construction crews as well as fears that the bay and its small access strait to the gulf could be too narrow and shallow for heavy oceanic vessels to dock.

-Delegates are sent to President John C. Frémont in late May with a bold offer to peacefully annex the Ozark Federation into the Kingdom of Louisiana, pointing out that unity would give the Ozarks plenty of law enforcement, military protection from Indians, and access to the rich treasury of the kingdom to expand infrastructure. President Frémont coldly turns down the proposal and ejects the French delegates from the capital, but news of the meeting quickly spread through various papers across the Federation.

-Contemptuous of President Frémont long before Louisiana’s intrusions, the city of St. Louis immediately declares itself loyal to the Louisianan crown, followed by many of the settlements along the Mississippi. French speaking settlements along the Ozark-Louisianan border also rise up in a bloodless coup to throw their loyalty behind New Orleans. President Frémont flees from the capital not only for fear of his life but from disgrace and humiliation the Ozarks have delivered him in openly defying his government. His last chance at redemption is shattered when he goes to the Ozark’s only military post - Fort Smith - and is barred from passing through its gates as the militia commander asserts loyalty to the Napoleon than him.

-Despite much of the riverlands and border regions throwing in allegiance to New Orleans, much of the rural regions of the Ozarks remain hesitant to join. But with half of their country already abandoning their independence and rumors of potential Mormon invasion from the north throws their stubbornness into doubt.

-Throughout the late spring and summer, the government pushes a ‘Nuavelle Colnie’ movement to encourage immigration of loyal Louisianan citizens to the Ozark frontier that have switched over. Those that uproot and move for the sake of the nation are given sums of money to plant themselves in the Ozarks and build infrastructure around them. In their wake, roads are cleared of debris and small bridges over the rivers of the land are constructed.

-In the late summer, King Napoléon pushes the Nègre Métayage Act, an intricate and complex law that awards slave owning plantations subsidies and tax-free land purchases in return for freeing their chained negroes and leasing their land to them. Contracts must be signed between the freemen and the owners, however, guaranteeing a number of years of labor and a share in any profits derived from the leased grounds.

-In early November, Louisianans go to the voter booths for the parliamentary elections, with the Ozarks and the position of slaves in the country as the main political points debated over. When all of the ballots are counted, the Parti Régimist are declared the majority winners of seats, while Libéraux Protecteurs made large gains at the cost of Rivière Party, mostly in counties with large number of freemen. Despite this, the Rivière Party maintains a strong presence in parliament as the main opposition.

-In December, newspapers announce the joyous news that the royal family will soon have a new addition in 1853 as Queen Catherine is with child. Many in New Orleans pray for their good fortune and a male heir to the throne.



NewYorkflag.png
Republic of New York - Native Hunter
President: Stephan Van Rensselaer IV
Governing Party: Beaver Party
Capital: Albany
Largest City: New York City


-1852 is brought in with excitement by the lacrosse match between the Bisons and the Comrades. The game goes back and forth with the teams, while not as many points are scored as hoped. Despite the town favorites - the Bisons - losing by a few points, the crowds are cheered by the game and optimistic for the coming year.

-To ease the worries of the United Kingdom regarding New York’s newly acquired African forts, a naval squadron of sloops-of-war and frigates are stationed in the Gulf of Guinea. They are charged not only with protection of New York property, but to apprehend any potential slave ship in the region and free its captives. Throughout the year, a handful of merchant vessels are boarded in the region, revealing two to be carrying the human cargo. The ships become impounded, the captives released back home while the crews are imprisoned in Fort Fredensborg to await trial or British custody.

-With transatlantic naval operations now a going concern for the New York Navy, a suitable academy to forge the finest officers is funded at King’s Point on Long Island. Drawing on a long naval history of the Dutch as well as the English, the academy’s motto quickly is boasted as Optimus Semper, which the New Yorkers aim to achieve. Ground is broken in a ceremony by President Rennsselaer in early March.

-Hoping to grow a commercial empire spanning the globe like the United Kingdom, outreach to Denmark is made again with economic interest in the Nicobar Islands of the east Indian Ocean. Having endured one malaria outbreak after another, failing every colony built on the islands, Denmark easily makes a financial deal to sell the islands to New York.

-While the distance from New York City to the Nicobar Islands is quite literally on the other side of the world, a search for a suitable location to give travelling New York ships safety and relief along the way is potentially found on the east coast of Africa. An envoy is sent to the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. After some deliberation, the New Yorkers gain the full leasing of Mafia Island for a period of 100 years.

-News of Venezuela’s victory over Colombia reaches Albany in April. With a new neighbor in the Americas, the government quickly votes to approve recognition. Afterward, large trade treaties with individual Caribbean states are made, selling rifles and cannon to Cherokia, Louisiana, and Venezuela. In return, Louisiana begins exporting cotton harvested by freemen to New York while Venezuela agrees to leasing the port of Scarborough just off the South American coast.

-The Trans-National Railway Line begins construction across the country in late spring as the last winter snow storms melt away. When completed, it is hoped that passengers will take no more than a day or two to cross the entire nation, as well as speed up the transition of goods.

-Expeditions into the dark continent are funded in the summer in search for trade with the natives as well as to survey the region around the coastal forts. Large regions of lush vegetation is noted, as well as the rich amount of gold jewelry worn by the natives. Soon enough, contact with the Ashanti Empire is made though. Despite the great wealth the African nation has, some of the New York explorers are dismayed by the expansive institute of slavery within it.

-By the end of the summer, Albany passes the Industrial Endowment Act of 1852, giving large subsidies to textile mills in the entire region surrounding New York City. With fresh cotton supplies from Louisiana, much of the horizon seen from New York City is checkered with factories and smokestacks.

-On Tuesday, the 9th of November, President Rensselaer convenes the New York government for a general and normal day of politicking in the capitol. Just before the lunch hour, the daily routine is abruptly shattered by a massive explosion in the building. The initial blast kills several men, some senators, while the capitol partially collapses afterward encasing many under brick and wood. The president crawls from the building as nearby townsfolk of Albany rush to unbury their government and save as many lives as they can. Rensselaer suffers from a gash on the head, but a doctor examining him finds no other wounds. However Vice President Cornelius Vanderbilt is withdrawn from the rubble unconscious, suffering a large foot-long splinter in his left leg. After an hour of surgery, the leg is removed while the Vice President continues to fail to wake up. By the end of clean up three days later, the death toll is counted up to 17, with triple that injured and not a single clue to who or why such a horrendous act was put into life.



Pennsylvania Flag.png
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - Gnomical
President: Francis R. Shunk
Governing Party: Freedom Party
Capital: Philadelphia
Largest City: Pittsburgh

-The surge in population over the past few years has made a rise in anticipation for the next election in 1853. Attentive to the massive undertaking of counting every new vote, the commonwealth’s government spends much of its energy toward readying the voting booths. While spring is spent mostly on surveying the best polling locations in urban centers and creating special mail routes for collecting votes of rural villages, the summer and fall sees an intensive interview process of ballot counters, poll booth operators, and honest poll tax collectors to insure the most free, partisan, and genuine election results next year.

-Vice President Henry P. Williamson announces his candidacy for president in early February. For much of the spring he campaigns throughout the eastern half of the nation with the slogan, “Equality and Industry is Strength” while convincing voters that President’s Shunk’s successful policies will continue with his election. In early July, Williamson makes a grand entrance into the western side of the country by draping the first train from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh with his face and party colors, tying the completion of the railroad through Appalachia to his party.

-The leaders of the opposition parties - George Shulzty of the Steadfast Party and Charles K. Thompson of the Whig Party - quickly throw their hat into the ring in June. Shulzty urges voters to consider the Susquehanna defensive line as an antagonist to other nations and expansion of the navy as a misuse of tax money throughout the year, while Thompson’s campaign promises are described as “like Williamson’s policies, only diluted with dullness”.

-In late April, ground is broken in the sandy soil of Cape May to establish the Commonwealth Naval Academy. The school is constructed adjacent to the Delaware Bay so to be near the construction of a future naval yard planned next year and to help future officers quickly be trained on the water. Goals in the charter go beyond most naval academies to simply instruct applicants in naval warfare and produce a nation’s best seamen, but also to identify by merit and conduct the best placement of graduates in the Commonwealth Navy.

-For the remainder of the year, Pennsylvanian troops go through heavy drilling on the far western lowlands of Ohio. Cadets from the military academy as well as veteran generals command units in mock battles, long marches, and honed bayonet charges. Much of the training focuses on quick reloading of the new breech-loading rifles as well as fast-paced marching. Each week the troops move further southward across the lowlands until they reach the Ohio River where they encamp for the winter until further orders.

-With heavy press criticism and falling behind in the polls, Charles K. Thompson of the Whig Party drops out of the race for presidency in late November and urges his supporters to vote for Williamson in the coming election next year.



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Republic of Quebec - Heyitsjiwon
President: Wolfred Nelson
Governing Party: Blue Party
Capital: Quebec City
Largest City: Montreal


-Heavy snow falls throughout the winter and late into spring in the Republic of Quebec and understanding that this is a climate the nation endures for much of the year pushes the government to adopt alternative means of drilling the army in winter warfare. Numerous Inuit from the far north are hired as wilderness camp guides as the army trains in several feet of snow. The Inuit teach the men how to make snowshoes as well as make heavy winter gear from trapped furs, giving the Québécois the ability to march over many miles regardless of weather, while they in return teach the natives of the north the French language and the sign of the cross.

-President Nelson sends an ambassador to Boston to express solidarity with the Republic of New England over the bounty hunter political dispute with the Carolina Confederacy. The two governments quickly warm to each other in the cold winter and work out a defensive treaty with one another, as well as a trade deal to reduce tariffs on general goods.

-As the late spring thaws ice packs throughout the Hudson Bay Strait, Quebec launches a large passage tax on foreign vessels sailing between Quebec and Baffin Island. Small boats sailing out of Fort Iqaluit to chase down vessels and demand payment for the tax. Some English vessels outrun the taxation while others complain of nationalizing piracy. Soon enough, delegations from both Toronto and London go to Quebec City to demand an explanation and suspension of the tariffs but President Nelson refuses to hear them throughout their stay.

-Seeing the growing tension with its neighbors, the government passes the 1852 Naval and Forestry Act, opening up large swaths of thick forests for timber companies so long as some of the lumber is used in construction of newly ordered naval vessels. While designed mostly to help expand the Québécois navy, Parti Canadien pushes a number of riders onto the bill to help build paper and pulp factories as much as lumber mills, creating the potential for a job boom in the hinterlands of the St Lawrence River.

-Hoping to out shine the Parti Canadien’s economic victory, President Nelson and the Blue Party push through the National Commerce Stimulus Act of 1852. Under the extensive bill, mining of gold and iron in the heartland of the country is heavily subsidized. Meanwhile a national stock exchange is opened in the capital of Quebec City, where state-run companies open up their stock to private investors.

-As the year draws to an end, hearing of the economic opportunities in Quebec attributing to the conservative Blue Party, many conservative-leaning Frenchmen arrive in Montreal to try to make their fortune in the country, including some notable men such as Henri, Count of Chambord. Irish immigration begins to stunt, however, as tensions with the United Kingdom over the Hudson Strait continue to grow.


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Commonwealth of Virginia - Joshuadium
President: Abraham Lincoln
Governing Party:
Capital: Richmond
Largest City: Norfolk


-President Lincoln leads the debate over bounty hunting as the priority political topic of the new year. A long source of tension with the commonwealth’s neighbors as well as criticized for its lack of morality, even among some slave owners in Virginia, the government passes a largely bipartisan Fugitive Negro Act of 1852. Under the new law, bounty hunters must pay a hefty annual licensing fee along with a national registry. Increased border patrols are funded as well to catch any unlicensed bounty hunter travelling to Maryland or from the Carolina Confederacy. The hopes for the bill are to ease concerns of surrounding nations, make hunters accountable for property damage or kidnapping of freemen, and produce a bit of national revenue on the side.

-To also help fill the state treasury, a monthly lottery system is put in place open to all free men across the country. Tickets are sold through post offices while the government buys up advertisement space in newspapers to announce the winners, though often the local paper of a winner will often read his name in the headlines. All the meanwhile, the government takes 40% as taxation of the earnings, which constitute the total sum of tickets purchased for that month.

-A shelter system is across major cities of the commonwealth throughout the late spring. The facilities open their doors to any man or woman without property or a home, though with the condition that they seek employment and move on as soon as possible, though many find it difficult in finding ways of seeking such.

-The subsidies of the previous years for industry are renewed for 1852. With continued tax cuts for textile manufacturing and metalworks, Norfolk’s skyline soon becomes checkered with smokestacks by the summer. The industrial appropriations also boom the population of Louisville, reaching sizes estimated to rival cities east of Appalachia for the first time in the nation’s history.

-While the past several years have seen intense drilling and rehearsement by the Army of Virginia, all units move into the Appalachia this season to study mountain warfare. Exhausting uphill marches are drilled into the men to keep the practice of maintaining formation while artillery crews push through the frustration of different terrains to fire from while hitting a variety of ranges and elevations. The cavalry corps however faces the hardest drilling, with orders to maintain charging formation through different elevations and thick forests.

-Sailing in September, delegates are sent to Paris and London to propose better commerce treaties regarding textile goods and tobacco products. Paris welcomes an agreement fairly quickly, while weeks of deliberation are made in London over sources of material used, quality, and working conditions of those producing them. Despite the hardships endured in the United Kingdom, a treaty of sorts is worked out, but not as favorable as the French agreement.

-A brisk wind of October air blew across the city of Charlottesville during an annual slave auction in the city. The first day of the week-long affair attracts many buyers and goes as any other normal auction. However in the morning of the first day, musket fire awakes the general populace as negroes with broken chains on their arms and legs begin marching through the street, combatting with any white man that tries to apprehend them. Before the city militia can be called, the slaves had captured a quarter of the city and released many of their chained brethren from the auction stockades, broadening their numbers.

-Volley lines are formed on the streets throughout the city, but the militias are surprised by the discipline the negroes organize themselves to and many flee the advancing revolt. By the end of the week, the slave rebellion engulfs the entire city, causing almost the entire white populace to flee in terror. Quarter is not given by both sides as skirmishes continue into the surrounding countryside and the baffled militia commanders are aghast at the unusual number of muskets and rifles available to the negroes in revolt. The year ends with fluid borders between the Charlottesville Rebellion and the encircling militia who try to keep the slaves from breaking out until the army can arrive. Meanwhile, plantation owners across the nation begin keeping a tighter lock and key on their slaves to prevent any coordination or imitation. While an exact death count is unknown, there are hundreds of missing reported among the evacuees, fearing that they may be trapped in the city by the barbaric slaves.


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United Venezuelan States - Amfleet
President: General José Antonio Páez
Governing Party: N/A
Capital: Caracas
Largest City: Caracas


-On a warm January day, General Páez stood in the town of Santa Rita, looking in the distance across the water of Lake Maracaibo to the Colombian city sharing its namesake. Knowing that victory was near, he decides that a final capture of a major city and its incorporation into Venezuela will force President Bolivar to surrender to their sovereignty. To put a swift and powerful end to Venezuela’s independence war, he collects his best commanders to form a dead cavalry unit to push up the from the city of Valera along the lake to Maracaibo.

-The army begins to march, with the new cavalry units - using both carbine and lance units - used as an advance vanguard. It is soon discovered that Colombian defenses in the valley are light, most likely due to troops redirected to defend Cali from the Ecuadorians. Despite the quick and easily winnable skirmishes with under-garrisoned posts, the cavalry vanguard mercilessly executes attacks as if it were a last stand, refusing to give quarter to any Colombian soldier. The unit quickly earns them the nickname Jinetes del Apocalipsis among both Colombians and Venezuelans.

-The reputation of the the Jinetes del Apocalipsis marching up the lake coast throughout March results in a third of Colombian troops in Maracaibo deserting, allowing an easy capture by the Venezuelans. With the capture of the major port city, General Páez sends another delegation to Bogota to sue for peace, forcing the border between the two countries at the Sierra de Perijá. After several weeks of waiting, it is announced that President Bolivar has conceded to recognize the United Venezuelan States as a separate, sovereign nation and Colombian troops will be removed from territories controlled by Caracas immediately.

-With the war over, General José Antonio Páez returns to Caracas to begin governing the country he has forged. To help the greater world recognize Venezuela as a new nation, his envoys reach northward to establish trade deals with the Kingdom of Louisiana and Republic of New York, both immediately recognizing their new American neighbor. Cheap exports of fruit and coffee beans are sent to New Orleans in return for several newly built steamships along with imports of cretonne. New cannons from New York foundries are shipped to Venezuela in exchange for leasement of a port. The government, under General Páez, decides on Scarborough on the island of Tobago would be adequate instead of anywhere on the mainland to avoid the appearance of ceding national territory immediately after winning independence.

-Throughout the late spring, New Yorker sailors in the various ports across the country pass time by playing a game new to South America called “baseball”. As the sailors smack a small ball with a board or thick stick, it begins to draw in crowds of locals and soon some join in.

-As the heat of June begins, the amount of farmland destroyed in the previous two years of war becomes apparent. Hoping to avoid economic collapse, Páez hires a number of cartographers, geologists, and chemists to scour the nation and account of its natural resources that can be exploited to move off of a completely agrarian economy. To aid in exploration, a number of railroad lines are ordered to be constructed throughout the country and by mid July, routes are cut through the jungle and forests, with the logs cut into planks to form ad hoc roads for immediate use until locomotives can travel through. The extensive project manages to provide a number of jobs for out-of-work farm peasants in the meantime.

-As the first steamships sail into Puerta la Cruz, one of them is quickly disassembled by Venezuelan engineers with the intention of reproducing the technology and physics of the engine for other uses. While the Louisianian sailors frown at the deconstruction of the fruits of their nation’s labors, they return to their kingdom glad that they had been well paid for the ship nonetheless.

-Late in the year, Páez’s collection of prospectors, geologists, cartographers, and chemists return to the capital to relay their reports. The cartographers determine Venezuela’s largest resource is lumber, but they are quickly dismissed as most nations in the Americas are rich in such resources. The geologists and chemists, however, find rich coal deposits in the Sierra de Perijá (bringing a smile to the General in deciding to liberate that region), while a number of deposits of asphaltum, iron and high amounts of gold are found throughout the country. Chemists also note crude oil seeping in some parts of the nation, noting that only a handful of years ago, a chemist in England had discovered the potential of distilling kerosene and paraffin wax from the material, though the process produces many useless byproducts such as gasoline that would need discarding into local rivers.


Turn 4 Due Sunday, February 24th 2019
 

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